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Osteoporosis Risk: Hormones affect bone health, know Prevention Tips

Understanding the hormonal influences and taking steps to optimize bone health through lifestyle changes and consultation with medical experts is crucial in preventing and managing osteoporosis. Consultation with medical experts and early intervention can greatly reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

Written By: Kristina Das @ New Delhi Published on: November 03, 2023 17:26 IST
Hormones affect bone health
Image Source : FREEPIK Hormones affect bone health.

Osteoporosis is a bone condition that causes bones to deteriorate, making them fragile and prone to fractures. While osteoporosis is a complex disorder influenced by many causes, hormone changes have a key role in its development, particularly in women. According to Dr B. Vijayakrishnan, Orthopedician, Apollo Spectra Hospital, Chennai, understanding the relationship between hormones and bone health is critical for prevention as well as management.

How do hormones affect Bone Health?


Perimenopause is a stage when hormone variations might already have an impact on bone health. Irregular menstrual cycles and hormonal imbalances can hasten bone loss. Women undergoing early menopause (before the age of 45) are also at a higher risk of osteoporosis.


Estrogen, the principal female sex hormone, is essential for bone density maintenance. There is a major decline in estrogen production during menopause, which normally happens around the age of 50. This decrease in estrogen levels hastens bone loss because estrogen regulates bone resorption. As a result, postmenopausal women are more likely to develop osteoporosis.


Testosterone, the principal male sex hormone, is also involved in bone density maintenance. In men, the steady drop of testosterone with age can result in lower bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis. 

Thyroid Hormones

Thyroid hormone abnormalities, such as hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid), can be detrimental to bone health. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can increase bone resorption while lowering bone creation, putting individuals at risk for osteoporosis.


Cortisol, a hormone released by the adrenal glands in reaction to stress, in excess can cause bone loss. Conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, which is characterized by chronically elevated cortisol levels, can lead to bone weakness. Corticosteroid medicines, which are used to treat a variety of health problems, can potentially raise the risk of osteoporosis if taken for a lengthy period.

How to Prevent Osteoporosis?

Preventing osteoporosis involves maintaining hormonal balance and optimizing bone health. This can be achieved through the following steps:

Diet and Nutrition: Make sure to get enough calcium and vitamin D, which are important for bone health.

Physical Activity: Weight-bearing workouts and strength training regularly can assist in preserving bone density.

Lifestyle Modifications: Avoid smoking and restrict alcohol consumption, as both can harm bone health.

Consultation with a medical expert: Consulting with a medical expert about bone health will help one understand the condition better and the medications required for it.

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