Urinary Tract Infection is a common bacterial infection in infants and children incidence is equal in male and female children during the first year Of life. Females are more prone to recurrent UTIs, whereas most UTIs occur during the first year of life, more common in uncircumcised boys. Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI are important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal damage. Different types of UTI are Urethritis(infection of the urethra), Cystitis(infection to the urinary bladder), and Acute Pyelonephritis (infection to one/both kidneys).
According to Dr. D. Srikanth, Sr. Consultant Pediatrician & Neonatologist, Yashoda Hospitals Hyderabad, clinical manifestations include fever with chills, increased urgency vomiting, painful urination and frequency of urination. Newborns show non-specific symptoms like poor feeding, irritability, and weight loss. Most of the time UTI is due to the ascending infection of a uropathogenic strain
Risk factors for UTI include female gender, uncircumcised male, toilet training, void dysfunction, urethral instrumentation, wiping from back to front in females, tight clothing, constipation, pinworm infection, and anatomical abnormality.
Diagnosing of urinary infection done by urine analysis and urine culture test, further imaging like ultrasound, and mistreating cystourethrogram may be required for identifying the aetiology and complications
Urinary tract infection should be treated adequately otherwise it can lead to recurrent UTI or complications, The need for hospitalization depends upon the patient's age, toxicity, dehydration, ability to retain oral intake and compliance with medication.
General measures to prevent urinary tract infection include adequate fluid intake and frequent voiding, constipation should be avoided, complete bladder emptying is encouraged, double voiding ensures emptying of the bladder of post residual urine, circumcision reduces the risk of recurrent UTI in infant boys, teach a child to wipe from front to back after going to the bathroom, avoid holding of urine, change diapers frequently, avoid bubble baths.