South Africa raced to a 220-run victory in the first test after Bangladesh's collapse to 53 all out on the morning of the final day on Monday.
Bangladesh lasted only 19 overs in its second innings and South Africa needed only two bowlers to roll the tourists out.
They were both spinners, with left-armer Keshav Maharaj collecting 7-32 and offspinner Simon Harmer 3-21. They both cashed in on spin-friendly conditions on a wearing pitch to take South Africa home.
It was a surprisingly sudden end to the match after Bangladesh had hopes of possibly pulling off its first test victory over South Africa by needing 274 runs in the final innings.
But the tourists slumped to 11-3 at the close of play on Day 4 in Durban and the wickets continued to tumble dramatically on the morning of Day 5.
No. 3 Najmul Hossain Shanto (26) and tailender Taskin Ahmed (14) were the only Bangladesh batters to reach double figures and South Africa needed less than an hour of play on Monday to take those remaining seven wickets and take a 1-0 lead in the two-test series.
Bangladesh's total was its second-lowest in test cricket after the 43 it was bowled out for against West Indies in 2018. Its 53 was also the lowest test total ever at the Kingsmead ground in Durban.
The huge winning margin belied a test which was competitive for much of the time. It might even have tipped slightly in Bangladesh's favour at one point on the fourth day when South Africa went from 116-1 to 204 all out in its second innings to give the touring team a sight at that historic test win over the Proteas.
Bangladesh had already won its first one-day series in South Africa earlier in the tour.
But its hopes in the first test were ripped away by Maharaj and Harmer, with Maharaj's seven at his home ground taking him to 141 career test wickets, now the most by a South African spinner since the country returned to international cricket after apartheid.
The second test is in Port Elizabeth and starts on Thursday.