The United States is currently facing a serious shortage of airline pilots, particularly at the regional airline levels, according to a report.
During this period, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for air travel, the Federal Aviation Administration said in the report. The International Air Transport Association predicts that air travel will double over the next 20 years.
Major US airlines were not yet directly experiencing the pilot shortage, according to the report.
The Federal Aviation Administration said that the number has decreased by 30 per cent over the past three decades and there were about 827,000 pilots in America in 1987.
But smaller regional airlines are experiencing this first-hand. Their schedules have been reduced and some, such as Republic, have been forced into bankruptcy because of inadequate staffing.
The industry has however taken few steps to address the problem. Regional airlines now offer much higher pay and even signing bonuses.
Meanwhile, the number of pilots supplied by the military has also dwindled. Much of this is due to the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.
Roughly two thirds of airline pilots were former military in the 80s. Recently, that percentage has dropped to less than one-third.
The Navy predicts a 10 per cent pilot shortage in 2020, while the Air Force predicts its own 1,000-pilot shortage by 2022.
In 2009, Congress changed the mandatory retirement age for airline pilots from 60 to 65.
A 2016 report by Boeing shows that 42 per cent of the pilots currently flying for the major airlines in the US will reach their mandatory retirement age of 65 in the next 10 years.
Congress also changed the duty time rules in 2010 to mitigate pilot fatigue issues. This change meant airlines had to increase their pilot staffing by 5 to 8 per cent in order to cover the same schedule.