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From ELIZA to SimSimi: Here is a look at chronological overview of AI chatbots before ChatGPT and Bard

Before ChatGPT and Bard emerged on the AI chatbot scene, a number of AI chatbots had already existed for decades including ELIZA, Alice, Racter, and Jabberwacky.

Edited By: India TV Tech Desk New Delhi Published on: February 13, 2023 10:30 IST
AI Chatbots
Image Source : FREEPIK An overview of AI chatbots before ChatGPT and Bard

ChatGPT and Bard are considered to be among the most advanced AI chatbots to date, however, their predecessors also played a crucial role in their evolution. The existence of AI chatbots in reality dates back several decades, with numerous predecessors paving way for the development of advanced AI chatbots such as ChatGPT and Bard.

Some of the earlier AI chatbots that pushed the limits in terms of dialogue simulations were ELIZA, Alice, Racter, and Jabberwacky, among many others.


Joseph Weizenbaum, a computer scientist at MIT, created the iconic natural-language processing chatbot ELIZA in the 1960s. To mimic a conversation with a psychotherapist, it makes use of pattern matching and replacement.

Psychiatrist Kenneth Colby created PARRY, an AI chatbot, in the 1970s to mimic a discussion with a paranoid patient. It was one of the first chatbots to include psychological concepts in its answers.

3- Racter
Racter, a pioneering AI chatbot created in the 1980s, was among the first chatbots to be able to come up with original replies on its own rather than just matching user inputs to pre-written responses.

4- Jabberwacky
Jabberwacky, an AI chatbot created by British AI researcher Rollo Carpenter in the 1990s, was one of the first chatbots capable of having sporadic and somewhat lifelike dialogues with users.

5- Clippy
From 1997 until 2003, Microsoft Office included Clippy, commonly referred to as the Office Assistant, as a built-in assistance tool. The chatbot was designed to help customers with Microsoft Office activities using natural language processing.

6- Albert One
The ALICE AI Foundation created Albert One, an AI chatbot, in the early 2000s. It was designed to be a multifaceted chatbot with the ability to engage in discussions on a variety of subjects.

7- Ultra Hal Assistant
Zabaware, Inc. created the AI chatbot Ultra Hal Assistant in the early 2000s. It was created as a virtual assistant and entertainment chatbot that could converse with users and carry out different activities on their behalf.

The ALICE AI Foundation created the AI chatbot framework known as Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity (ALICE ) in the early 2000s. It generates replies to user inputs using pattern matching and substitution.

9- Eugene Goostman
Three programmers created Eugene Goostman in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2001. It is able to converse in an almost human manner.

10- SimSimi 
SimSimi, a talking robot was created by ISMaker in 2002. Simsimi may be contacted by just tapping on the screen. Similar to many other AI models, Simsimi's vocabulary grows as a result of human input.


1- What advantages can AI chatbots offer?

AI chatbots offer round-the-clock accessibility, cost savings, enhanced customer service, higher productivity, and the capacity to undertake simple tasks.

2- What issues do AI chatbots have?

The difficulties with AI chatbots include their limited comprehension of context, their inability to handle complicated questions, the generation of improper replies, and the protection of user privacy and security.


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